Overview of the development of printing in the hot

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Overview of the development of printing in contemporary society

the long history of Chinese printing has lasted for thousands of years. If we take time as the coordinate system to observe its evolution, the fastest change rate is the second half of the century since the middle of this century. Compared with thousands of years, half a century is just a moment in history. In this short historical "moment", China's printing industry (including Taiwan and Hong Kong) has made great progress, which is what the general history of Chinese printing contemporary chapter wants to summarize

printing is a comprehensive reflection of social economy, culture, science and Technology> first, printing is a comprehensive reflection of social economy, culture, science and technology

people often regard the overall level of a country's printing industry as a sign that is related to its comprehensive level of economy and culture and reflects its economic and cultural level. This makes sense. Economy and culture are originally two different social categories, and social development is promoting the integration of the two. As we all know, culture belongs to the spiritual category, and its dissemination also depends on the material carrier - printed matter to a large extent, and most of these printed matter are commodities in the field of economic circulation. As a commodity in the field of economic circulation, packaging and decoration is increasingly showing its cultural content. Packaging and decoration printing is becoming an important part of the printing industry. In terms of education, textbooks for primary and secondary school students account for more than one third of the printing output. The printing industry has become the essential material basis of modern education. A certain social culture is a comprehensive reflection of society, and the overall level of the printing industry is exactly a comprehensive reflection of social economy, culture, science and technology

a remarkable feature of modern social production is that the specialization division of labor is becoming more and more detailed, but the infiltration and interdependence between different majors and even different categories of science and technology are becoming stronger and stronger. People are integrating science and technology in other fields into printing technology, changing the face of traditional printing technology, but also transplanting printing technology to other industrial production fields. Modern science and technology is "you have me, I have you". Since the 1970s, printing technology has changed from the original manual and mechanization to the combination of laser technology, electronic computer technology, polymer chemical technology, precision machinery technology and other modern science and technology, and has become a comprehensive application technology in the field of graphic information processing and broadcasting technology, which is the most dynamic in Contemporary society

printing and printing industry> II. Printing and printing industry

although there is a connection between printing technology and printing industry, there are two concepts with different meanings. The traditional printing industry refers to the application of printing technology and industrial production means to produce printed matter. Such as newspaper and book printing, packaging trademark printing, stationery and commercial printing, Securities printing, etc. can be regarded as the scope of the printing industry. Obviously, the printing industry is a branch of manufacturing in the socio-economic field

in terms of printing technology, printing refers to the process technology of transferring the graphic information of the original to the substrate through printing plate or other means. People often say that printing, one of the "four great inventions", refers to printing technology. Since "invention" is used, it shows that printing is a natural science and technology, not a social science behavior. It is not only the most important production technology in the printing industry, but also in other industrial production fields, where it is useful to transmit, copy and transfer the original text, there is a place for printing. For example, the use of printing technology in fancy cloth printing and dyeing is a part of the textile printing and dyeing industry; Applique printing is an important part of the ceramic industry; It is used to make circuit boards, such as printed circuit board technology in the electronic industry. The main line running through the general history of Chinese printing is the whole process of the gestation, germination, growth and development of Chinese printing. In contemporary society, the application of printing has greatly exceeded the scope of the printing industry, and has been applied in printing and dyeing industry, ceramic industry, electronic industry, building materials industry and other industrial production. Since it is the development history of printing, we should try to summarize many aspects of the application of printing technology. However, because the application scope of printing technology is too wide, and it is too scattered in the management of contemporary printing industry, and it is lack of complete data and systematic statistical data, even if the author is intentional, limited by his ability, it is difficult to take into account all aspects. In the chapter of "industrial printing", he can only give a brief overview of its technical evolution, and the lack of necessary data makes it pale and regrettable

printing industry management system> III. printing industry management system

it can be said that 360 lines cannot be separated from printing, ranging from document printing within the Department to the construction of professional printing plants. The publishing system has a book printing plant; The propaganda system has a newspaper printing plant; There are packaging and decoration printing plants in light industry and foreign trade systems; There are banknote printing plants in the banking system; The railway system has a printing factory that specially prints train tickets; The mapping system has a map printing plant; Textile systems include fancy cloth printing and dyeing plants, etc. In the face of the actual situation that printing technology is applied in various systems of society and is highly decentralized, a "four person" management system of "who uses, who builds, who owns, and who manages" has naturally formed in the management of the printing industry. In the 1950s, when the foundation of the printing industry was very weak, it was better to rely on all sectors of society to develop the printing industry and mobilize everyone's enthusiasm than to mobilize the enthusiasm of one family. This really played a positive role in the development of the printing industry in the 1950s and 1960s. However, the long-term decentralized management, the lack of coordination between the printing industry and the printing equipment and equipment industry, did not take the development of the printing industry as a systematic project, and did not even take printing as an industry. By the early 1980s, The problems accumulated by the printing industry for a long time (the responsible units: the Provincial Department of economy and information technology and the Provincial Department of science and technology are increasingly exposed. There is a paragraph in the decision on strengthening publishing work issued by the State Council on June 6, 1983: "It is universally acknowledged that the backwardness of the printing industry indicates not only the backwardness of a country's culture and education, but also the backwardness of its economic development. At present, China's printing industry lags far behind some developing countries. It also lags far behind China's overall economic development." The backwardness of the book printing industry is mainly manifested in "poor management of book printing, outdated equipment, extremely backward technology, and insufficient production capacity." Packaging and decoration printing also has the same situation of outdated equipment and backward technology. Previously, state leaders criticized packaging and decoration printing as "first-class products, second-class packaging, and third-class prices". In the early 1980s, lead printing was still widely used in newspaper printing in China

to be fair, compared with the late 1940s, the printing industry made great achievements in the early 1980s. The problem is that the development speed of the printing industry lags behind not only the development speed of developing countries in the world, but also the development speed of the national economy, culture and education. Compared with others, if the pace of progress is slow, it is backward

in order to accelerate the development of China's printing industry and printing related equipment manufacturing and equipment production industries, and quickly change the backward face of China's printing industry, a printing technology and equipment coordination group was established in 1982, led by the National Economic Commission, in conjunction with the departments of culture, machinery, electronics, light industry, chemical industry and so on. In 1983, the state set up a special appropriation for the transformation of printing technology. In December, 1985, China printing and equipment industry association was established. With the concerted efforts of all parties, through the development of the sixth, seventh and eighth five-year plans (1980-1995), by 1997, the supply capacity of China's printing equipment could meet the needs of general printing enterprises. The output and quality of paper, ink and plate making materials have been greatly improved. The production capacity and quality of books and periodicals, newspaper printing, packaging and decoration printing have made gratifying achievements

the reform of the management system of China's printing industry has long been a topic discussed by colleagues in the printing industry for many times but not well resolved. After the establishment of the printing technology and equipment coordination group of the National Economic Commission in 1982, it wanted to promote the reform of the management system of China's printing industry. In May, 1983, the State Economic Commission commissioned the Publishing Bureau of the Ministry of culture to form an investigation team to conduct a comprehensive investigation on how to reform the management system of China's printing industry in the name of the State Economic Commission. The author of this article was a member of the investigation team at that time. From May 1983 to November of the same year, the investigation team held a symposium in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Xi'an, Chengdu, Chongqing, Wuhan and other cities to hear your opinions on the reform of the management system of the printing industry. Everyone's opinions are basically the same in the following three aspects. This is: 1. Printing is industrialized production, and printing enterprises should be managed according to the management methods of industrial enterprises; 2. The printing management is too decentralized, which is not conducive to the development of the printing industry. It is suggested to establish an organization under the State Council to implement centralized management of the national printing industry (the original subordinate relationship of the enterprise remains unchanged); The country should implement unified planning and management on matters related to printing equipment production, material supply, personnel education and so on. In 1983, although the national printing industry had a considerable scale, all enterprises were scattered in different systems and departments. Packaging and decoration printing enterprises were mostly scattered in the light industry department, but at that time, perfect experimental materials were not formed in the light industry department, which were taken from the top-down management system of x12crmowvnbn10 ⑴ ⑴ gas turbine turbine turbine disk trial forgings after post forging heat treatment. Comparatively speaking, the printing of books and periodicals in the publishing department is not only large-scale, but also has formed a top-down management system. The investigation team summed up the opinions of all parties. Based on the above actual situation, the proposed management system reform plan can be completed in only 8 seconds: the establishment of China National Printing Industry Corporation to centrally manage the national printing industry (the original subordinate relationship of the enterprise remains unchanged). The head office can consider attaching itself to the Ministry of culture; Common matters related to printing materials, personnel education and other printing industry enterprises are under the unified centralized management of the head office. Due to the deep-rooted traditional management concepts formed under the planned economic system for a long time, the new reform plan is still difficult to accept for the time being. The Ministry of culture also lacks experience in managing industry. Under the opposition of relevant parties, the management system reform plan proposed by the investigation team was actually rejected

four stages of the development of the printing industry> IV. four stages of the development of the printing industry

looking at the development process of China's printing industry over the past half century, it can be roughly divided into four stages. From the late 1940s to 1956, the first stage of the nationwide socialist transformation of private industry and commerce was the realization of public-private partnership. The second stage was from 1957 to 1965. The third stage was from 1966 to 1976. The fourth stage is after 1977

the first stage. Since modern times, China

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